One of the places that I frequent on regular basis to stay current on the ever changing world of health is Mercola.com. I came across this great article today by Dr. Ben Lerner on the importance of getting your childrens spines checked and thought you would enjoy it. Dr. Ben Lerner, along with Dr. Greg Loman, owns Teach The World About Chiropractic, a Chiropractic training company. They have helped build the largest spinal correction clinics in the history of Chiropractic. Their new book, One Minute Wellness, shows people how to overcome their frustrations with life and health without the use of dangerous medications. It's already a dramatic, runaway bestseller.By Dr. Ben Lerner
Birth is a normal, natural process that's been around since almost the beginning of humanity. As with any other task the body was created to perform, when you support normal functioning, you have your best chance at success.
The road down the birth canal and out into the world can be a trying one, particularly in the case of medical intervention and high-tech births. (You may recall a JAMA study showing the United States ranked last in neonatal mortality, infant mortality and for the health of newborns.) As a result, there has been an ever-increasing occurrence of traumatic birth syndrome.
Traumatic birth syndrome describes the presence of trauma-induced skull and spinal damage and spinal misalignment as a result of the birth process. As tough as birth is, going through it with the woman lying on her back, working against gravity, on medications to increase the intensity of labor, numb to the delivery muscles, and often accompanied by surgical interventions, makes it exponentially more traumatic.
When you think about this, it's no surprise vertebral subluxation in infants is so common.
How the Birthing Process Injures Spines
Pain coming from compression or irritation of the sciatic nerve is called sciatica. Sciatica - which can include pain, tingling, numbness and muscle weakness - is really a symptom indicating an underlying problem, not a diagnosis in and of itself. This article will explore in detail the findings of a recent controlled study comparing spinal manipulation (chiropractic) and surgery for people whose sciatica did not respond to traditional medical treatment approaches.
The study discussed here was conducted by the National Spine Center in Alberta Canada and published in October of 2010 in the Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics . The 40 study participants all had sciatica lasting over 3 months which had not responded to treatment with pain medications, lifestyle modifications, physical therapy, massage therapy or acupuncture. They had all been referred by their primary care physicians to spinal surgeons who had deemed them appropriate surgery candidates.
Instead of having all the patient proceed with surgery, they were split into two groups - one group to undergo a surgical microdiscectomy and the other group to be treated with standardized chiropractic spinal manipulation by a single chiropractor. (If not satisfied with the results they obtained from their assigned method, the patients were allowed to switch to the other treatment plan after 3 months.)
There is one paragraph in the results section of this study that is easy to overlook, but incredibly important. There were originally 120 candidates of which 60 met the study criteria and were asked to participate. Of these 60, 20 refused. Why? Because they had never been offered spinal manipulation as an alternative to surgery! They didn't want to participate in the study and be randomly placed in the surgery group without first trying the spinal manipulation! This is incredibly telling. Not only does it demonstrate that there is still a lot of education about chiropractic that needs to happen among the public and among primary care providers, it also demonstrates that people understand the risks and costs of surgery and want to exhaust other possibilities first.
You can benefit from chiropractic care at any age. Because the birthing process - even with natural childbirth methods - can cause subtle injuries to the clavicle, collarbone, spine and neck, parents often bring their infants to their chiropractors for a checkup soon after they are born. Many chiropractors have received specialized training in pediatric care, and have been trained in how to assess these subtle problems and imbalances in ways that medical doctors and pediatricians have not.
Chiropractic care can also benefit children as they continue to grow. Spinal problems may result as the result of falls, or from long periods of time spent in cramped or uncomfortable positions, such as riding in car seats. This can result in many common disorders in children, such as persistent earaches, bed-wetting, colic, or headaches. These conditions have often been successfully treated via chiropractic care. In 2007, nearly 3% of American children were treated with chiropractic or osteopathic manipulation, making it one of the most common forms of complementary or alternative medicine used for children.
Chiropractic has been proven for decades to be one of the safest alternative health care methods, and of course safety is even more important when dealing with children. Spinal adjustments, when performed on infants or young children, involve very light, finger-tip movements. One or two pounds of pressure is all that is necessary to correct spinal structures that have become misaligned, because although it is easy for children's spines to shift out of alignment, it is also easy to ease them back into place. The "popping" sound that is often heard when spinal joints are manipulated in adults is not always heard in children. There is rarely any pain or discomfort, and many children enjoy their visits to the chiropractor and look forward to subsequent visits.
So there is no reason why, as a parent, you should not consider chiropractic care for your infant or child, and there are many reasons why it may be wise to do so. The focus of chiropractic is, after all, to treat the "whole person" and, by keeping the spine and nervous system healthy, keeping the whole body healthy. This is as important in children as it is in adults.
It is important to note, however, that a chiropractor is not a replacement for your pediatrician, who is there to provide your children with medications and care in case of serious illness or injury. The chiropractor provides complementary care, focusing on wellness, integrity of the spine and the nervous system, and the development of a healthy immune system. You would not expect your medical doctor or pediatrician to perform a checkup on your children's teeth; instead you'd take them to a dentist, who has had more specialized training. Similarly, chiropractors have had more specialized training that enables them to diagnose subtle imbalances in children's spinal structures and restore them to balance with subtle, non-invasive adjustments.
Living in the fast paced world of Bellevue Washington, stress is a common part of our day. Job stress, family stress, traffic stress, and name it stress is hard to get away from. In my office I see a lot of the physical results from stress. One of the physical manifestations of stress that I see on a daily basis with my patient is TMJ.
What is TMJ? Great question! TMJ stands for temporal mandibualar joint, or your jaw bone and joints. Simply put, TMJ is pain the joint or joints of the jaw. It is a very painful condition that can affect the way you eat, talk and even sleep. Clenching and grinding of your jaw, which are common while under stress, is a common cause of this problem.
I see quite a lot of patients with TMJ in my practice and have found that it is very closely associated with conditions of the neck. As a chiropractor I first look to see if the joint has been misaligned, and if it has use very gentle steps to realign the joint. Many times this will help in eliminating TMJ pain, and symptoms.
I use very gentle steps to help create normal alignment in the jaw.Once aligned the next step is re-balancing the muscles so the TMJ symptoms do not come back. For this I use simple a home exercises. If you have TMJ and have found no cure it may be time to see a chiropractor. The testimonial below is from one of my many patients who have found relief while under my care.
"I have had pain from my misaligned jaw (TMJ) for years and years. I have tried mouth guards, massage, been to different doctors, stretching, etc. Nobody can help and they all refer me to oral surgeons (who want to break your jaw) but no insurance companies, medical or dental will cover anything to do with TMJ and even most doctors cringe and run away at the mere mention of it. I never thought Chiropractic treatments could help this sort of thing, but eventually out of desperation asked Dr. Weir if there was anything he could do. After our session I had no more pain and was able to fully open my mouth without it clicking or my joint popping out of place for the first time in over 10 yrs! - (plus, so far it's staying that way without falling right back out of place). He was more informative on things I can do to help reverse the damage (without surgery) than ANY of the "specialists" I have seen. I should also mention that he has a fantastic staff and the office is super comfortable. For the first time in a looong while, I feel hopeful that I won't have to live with this pain for the rest of my life. - thank you Dr. Weir!!! - C.B."
With more and more people taking up recreational running in the US, the number of running associated injuries have also increased. Commonly reported cases include: shin splints; patellofermoral pain syndromes; Achilles tendinitis; flat feet; and compartmental syndromes and stress fractures. All these injuries are a result of cumulative stress reactions to soft tissues and bones. While running, the musculoskeletal system may absorb up to 250-300% of the runner’s weight on the heel strike [1,2,3], and this exerts stress on the body.
Chiropractors are generally contracted to help alleviate pain and non-specific symptoms associated with running, usually from the gradual onset of regular stress on the soft tissues and bones. If these symptoms are caught early, they can then be effectively managed and reduced in a short period of time . Chiropractic treatment can help excessive pronation , the inward rolling of the hind foot and the midfoot beyond the acceptable parameters of general walking and running; prolonged internal rotation of the internal extremity , the inward rotation of the femur, which transmits stress to the pelvic region; and excessive supination , and those with very high arches who are very sensitive to stress reactions and fractures.
While chiropractic treatment can help with pain and injuries, its biggest advantage to runners and athletes is preventive care. Many runners, athletes and non-athletes may ask – why pay for chiropractic treatment when there is no pain to treat? It’s much easier to maintain good health and prevent injury than to treat somebody already in pain. The danger with running injuries is that they are likely to be caused by repetitive stress and alignment problems that take time to develop, and an even longer time for the pain to start. If our bodies were designed with perfect alignment, then we would be able to cope with the regular stress running delivers. However, very few of us do have perfect alignment, and in many cases those with flat feet or high arches are at risk to extra cumulative stress to the body. 
In preventive cases, a chiropractor can give a good overall evaluation, teaching the patient how to prevent injuries and maintain good alignment – thereby reducing the chance of injury. For those looking for preventive treatment, your chiropractor can help assess and evaluate your condition by offering scans of your feet, testing for strength imbalances and an analysis of your posture. In addition, the chiropractor can also suggest a program suited to your needs to prevent injury in the future.
 Lutter LD. Foot-related knee problems in the long-distance runner Foot &Ankle 1980; 1:112-116.
 Robbin SF, Hanna AM. Running-related injury prevention through barefoot adaptations. Med Sci Sports Exerc 1987; 19.148-156.
 Cavanaugh PR, LaFortune.MA. Ground reaction forced in distance running. Biomech 1980; 13:397-406.
 Griffith., HJ et aZ Magnetic resonance spectrum of stress injury to bone and ib clinical relevance. (in press) Presented at Annual Symposium of Am Coll Chiro Radiol, 1992.
 Michaud TC. Recurrent lower tibial stress fracture in a long-distance runner. Chino Sports Med 1988; 2(3):78-87. 18. Cavanagh PA The shoe ground interface in running. Symposium on the foot and leg in running sports, n.d.
 Schafer RC. Clinical Biomechanics Musculoskeletal Actions and Reactions. Baltimore: Williams & Wilkins, 1983. 21. Greenawalt MH. Spinal Pelvic Stabilization (4th ed.). Roanoke: Foot Levelers, Inc., 1990.
 Subotnick SI. Sports Medicine of the Lower Extremity. New York: Churchill Livingstone, 1989:164.
 http://www.campanellahealthcenter.com/uncategorized/why-chiropractic-care-is-important-for-runners/ accessed September 2011
Migraine sufferers have to endure a pain that is recurring, severe and can last up to 72 hours. Warning signs such as an “aura”, which is a type of visual disturbance, and nausea, sometimes accompany migraines. Many sufferers find that conventional medicine and prescription drugs offer little relief from their condition, and many are turning to alternatives methods of treatment in order to manage the pain. I have found that one such alternative is chiropractic treatment.
A holistic approach to pain relief, chiropractic treatment focuses on aiding numerous health issues through massage, spinal manipulation and adjustment of the body’s soft tissues and joints, predominantly in the back. But is it effective against migraines?
In February 2000, a study published by Dr. Tuchin et al.  cited the possible benefits of chiropractic treatment in alleviating or easing both the pain and frequency of recurring migraines. The study used a sample of 127 migraine patients, all of whom suffered from at least one migraine per month; this sample was divided into two groups – one control group who received inactive treatment, while the other group received chiropractic treatment, focusing on aligning and treating specific areas of vertebral swelling and misalignment. The study concluded that those who received chiropractic treatment experienced subsequent improvement in the duration of the study, showing reduced pain and frequency of their migraines within two months of treatment. The latter group also reported a decline in the need of migraine medications. Further results from the same study found that one in five sufferers from the chiropractic treatment group had a 90% reduction of migraine frequency, while 50% found significant improvement in the severity of their migraines.
Recent studies conducted by R. Bryans et al. published in 2011 , concluded that chiropractic care, including spinal manipulation, were found to improve both cerviocogenic headaches as well as migraines. A systematic literature search on controlled clinical trials on the topic of migraines and headaches involving chiropractic treatment, published through August 2009, was conducted using a selection of medical and alternative therapy databases. Research found that chiropractic treatments such as spinal manipulation and massage could significantly help patients who suffer from chronic or episodic migraines, whereas sufferers of tension-type headaches did not respond to such treatment.
While using alternative methods of treatment such as chiropractic care can help sufferers to gain more control over their migraines, it should be treated as another form of support or extra help, instead of completely overlooking conventional medical care.
 P.J. Tuchin, H. Pollard, R. Bonello, A randomized controlled trial of chiropractic spinal manipulative therapy for Migraine. Journal of Manipulative and Physiological Therapeutics, Feb. 2000: Vol. 23, No. 2, pp91-95.
R. Bryans et al., J Manipulative Physiol Ther. 2011 Jun;34(5):274-89. doi: 10.1016/j.jmpt.2011.04.008.
A triathlon is an athletic event incorporating back-to-back running, cycling and swimming. Triathlons exert great strain on the body, which may challenge athletes on both physical and mental levels. The extreme training a triathlete must endure can put the body under great cumulative stress, and it’s not uncommon for the athletes to suffer from a broad range of injuries and overuse stresses.
There are numerous worldwide triathlon events, such as Ironman, Half-Ironman, Olympic and Spring. The majority of these events advocate the use of chiropractic care to aid not only in treating injuries, but also to improve performance. Chiropractic care offers the possibility of enhanced finishing times and a greater likelihood of triathletes finishing events.
Chiropractic treatment is a practice that focuses on the neuromuscular skeletal system and its use optimizes biomechanics. For these reasons, chiropractic care is ideal for athletes looking to treat or prevent injuries.
One type of chiropractic treatment used by many triathletes is the “Active Release Technique,” which is a form of soft tissue treatment based on an advanced movement massage system. It is very effective in locating and treating the cause of soft tissue conditions. Active Release Techniques are used in most of the large name triathlons. Many triathletes suffer from injuries attributed to repetitive strain and stress, since excessive training can result in muscle restrictions due to adhesion formation. Before treatment takes place, a biomechanical analysis of the athlete is conducted to determine the exact location of restrictions in the body along the kinetic chain. Active Release Techniques focus on specific tissues that have become restricted physically, and are then manipulated back into their original texture, tension and position. Once the soft tissues are repositioned, specific exercises are then carried out in order to aid the recovery of damaged tissues. Unlike most treatments, treating the injured triathlete with chiropractic care does not require extended rest periods before improvements are seen. It is very common that injured athletes who receive the Active Release Technique show signs of improvement in just a few sessions. For those who are looking to invest only in preventive treatment, improvement in performance is also achieved in the span of a few sessions.
A possible reason that chiropractic care prior to an event can result in performance enhancement may be that spinal adjustments improve the body’s maximal oxygen consumption ability. Since prevention is easier than treatment of an injury, many professional athletes invest in preventive and performance enhancing chiropractic treatment.
 http://www.kinetichealth.ca/4-Triathalon.html Accessed September 2011
 http://www.bthconline.com/sport-injuriesperformance.html Accessed September 2011
Good spinal health is built from the ground up, starting with the feet. For years medical researchers and healthcare providers have recognized that problems there can cause posture changes that eventually trigger a variety of musculoskeletal issues in other parts of the body (particularly the ankle, knee, hip and back). Studies have also shown that even slight foot problems can negatively affect athletes’ performance and predispose them to a broad range of sports-related injuries.
What Are Orthotics and How Can They Help?
Orthotics are shoe inserts that are specially designed and manufactured to correct an abnormal or irregular walking pattern by promoting proper alignment and balance. They’ve improved the quality of life for millions of people, and it’s become very common for physicians to recommend them to address many different patient needs:
• Reducing pain and/or fatigue
• Providing targeted foot support
• Relieving pressure or stress on an injured or sensitive area
• Preventing or limiting deformity
• Improving foot positioning and function
• Restoring balance
• Reinforcing or supplementing other therapies (particularly chiropractic adjustments)
Foot orthotics are medical devices that can significantly change the way a person stands, walks and runs (and therefore the way his or her body absorbs and distributes related forces). For this reason, it’s important that the person wearing them clearly understand their benefits, risks and limitations. It’s also important that the person use them correctly.
What Every Patient Should Know About Orthotics
1. There is no “one-size-fits-all” answer when it comes to orthotics. What works for another family member or neighbor will probably not work for you! Getting the right prescription for your particular needs is all about working effectively with your healthcare provider to define your own goals and develop a complete understanding of your foot’s unique structure and function. For instance, orthotics can be very sport-specific—the performance requirements of a hiker will not be the same as those of a skier or a football player.
2. Not all orthotics are created equal, and the differences matter. The prefabricated orthotics that can be purchased at shoe stores, pharmacies and sporting goods stores are not the same as the custom orthotics prescribed by a healthcare provider. Do not confuse them! Mass-produced products are tailored for the “typical” foot and are unlikely to address problems specific to any one individual’s foot. In some situations, such products can actually make a medical condition worse, cause new problems or increase the risk of injury. So while they’re usually less expensive than custom orthotics, they may not actually solve your particular problem.
3. Orthotics don’t actually correct foot or ankle problems. They are intended to realign the structures of the foot to improve function, reduce pain and decrease the risk of injury.
4. Needs can change over time and your orthotics should too. The structure and function of the foot can change as people age. So too can people’s lifestyle and priorities. Your healthcare provider can work with you to ensure that your prescription is still the right one for you.
5. Long-term use of orthotics may pose its own risks. Any time that you provide outside help to the structures normally responsible for supporting and moving parts of your body (casts or braces are good examples), you are essentially asking them to do less. And if you provide that help over a sufficiently extended period, you run the risk that your bones, muscles and connective tissues may become weaker as a result. The unintended consequence is that you may actually become less capable and more reliant on your devices to do the work your body used to do. Your healthcare provider will talk with you about how to use your orthotics correctly and manage any long-term risk that he or she believes may exist.
6. Prescribing orthotics is arguably as much an art as a science. Don’t underestimate the role of professional in prescribing orthotics. Experts acknowledge that there are few widely-accepted standards and that we can’t always predict successfully how an individual will respond to a particular prescription. In fact, recent research has demonstrated that individuals with the same condition can respond very differently to identical orthotic therapy. There’s even evidence that the same patient can respond to a prescription inconsistently or can respond just as favorably to two entirely different (even contrary) prescriptions. This means that some trial and error may be necessary to get the results both you and your healthcare provider are looking for and that good communication is critical. Without accurate and timely feedback about how well your orthotics are doing their job, it’s impossible to make the adjustments that will eventually lead to success.
How Your Bellevue Chiropractor Can Help
There’s a close relationship between the way your feet work and the way the rest of your musculoskeletal system supports your body. So even if your feet themselves don’t actually hurt, they could be contributing to other health problems that you’re experiencing. After your chiropractor has examined you carefully and talked with you about your situation, he or she can help you decide whether foot orthotics should be part of your broader treatment plan. Call our office today at 425-635-0495 to learn more.
References and Resources
Gina Kolata, Close Look at Orthotics Raises a Welter of Doubts. Orthotic Shoe Inserts May Work, but It’s Not Clear Why. New York Times Fitness and Nutrition. January 17, 2011. Accessed August 2011.
Nigg, BM et. al., Effect of Shoe Inserts on Kinematics, Center of Pressure, and Leg Joint Movements During Running. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise. February 2003. Accessed August 2011.
Best Foot Forward with Chiropractic. Journal of the American Chiropractic Association. January 2001. Accessed August 2011.
If you are pregnant and suffering from low back pain, a neighbor or a friend has probably suggested you visit a chiropractor because a chiropractor was able to help them during their pregnancy. The discussion probably left you curious, is that good advice or just a single success story? Additionally, you may be wondering whether chiropractic is safe during pregnancy and how much low back pain improvement the average pregnant woman can expect to get.
After looking at several scientific publications on these exact topics, the appropriate conclusion seems to be that “chiropractic evaluation and treatment during pregnancy may be considered a safe and effective means of treating common musculoskeletal symptoms that affect pregnant patients. The scarcity of published literature warrants further research.” (Borggren, 2007)
So basically the answers are:
• Yes, chiropractic is safe during pregnancy.
• Yes, chiropractic helps common musculoskelatal probelms during pregnancy (including back pain).
• Your friends experience isn’t just one woman’s story. Many women are finding relief and the results are being sporadically published in medical journals too.
• More research under more controlled conditions is needed for the purposes of educating primary care physicians and obstetricians about chiropractic care during pregnancy.
Here are a few additional details about the prevalence of low back pain during pregnancy and the number of women being referred for treatment.
• 57 – 69% of women complain of low back pain during pregnancy
• Only about 32% of women report these symptoms to their primary doctor
• Only about 25% of primary doctors recommend seeking treatment for the pain.
Clearly this is a big problem with 2 in 3 having pregnancy-related back pain. Also a big problem is that they are generally not talking to their obstetricians and primary care physicians about it and that these professionals are not referring them to effective treatment options.
Chiropractic treatments can be quite effective for pregnancy-related back pain with just a few visits for the majority of women seeking help. In a small study of 17 women:
• Sixteen of 17 (94%) saw clinically important improvements in low back pain with chiropractic care.
• The average pain rating went down from 5.9 to 1.5 (on a scale of 0 to 10).
• It took an average of 1.8 visits and 4.5 days to get clinically important pain relief.
We hope this article gave you hope that many pregnant women do get significant, rapid relief from low back pain. If you are currently pregnant with low back pain, you probably have many questions not answered by this article. Perhaps you’ve never had chiropractic care before or you want to know how we adjust our techniques to work with pregnant patients. The best way to get answers to your questions is with an initial consultation. The only way for us to know whether you are a good candidate is for you to come see us, so call us today at 425-635-0495 for an initial appointment today!
Borggren, C. L. (2007, Spring). Pregnancy and chiropractic: a narrative review of the literature. J Chiropr Med, 6(2), 70-74.
Khorsan, R., Hawk, C., Lisi, A., & Kizhakkeveettil, A. (2009, Jun). Manipulative therapy for pregnancy and related conditions: a systematic review. Obstet Gynecol Surv, 64(6), 416-27.
Lisi, A. (2006, Jan-Feb). Chiropractic spinal manipulation for low back pain of pregnancy: a retrospective case series. J Midwifery Womens Health, 51(1), 7-10.
Stuber, K., & Smith, D. (2008, ul-Aug). Chiropractic treatment of pregnancy-related low back pain: a systematic review of the evidence. J Manipulative Physiol Ther., 31(6), 447-54.
My patients in my Bellevue chiropractic office occasionally ask me whether chiropractic x-rays are safe, so I wanted to summarize the current FDA statements on x-ray safety and give you a couple credible resources where you can learn more. Read the full article if you want the complete story, but if you are looking for a quick answer, the FDA estimates that the radiation exposure from a chest ray is roughly equivalent to the background radiation you are exposed to in 10 ordinary days on planet Earth.
The FDA states on its website "Don't refuse an X-ray. The risk of not having a needed X-ray is greater than the small risk of radiation."
First of all, there is no difference between a chiropractic x-ray and any other type of x-ray. While x-ray equipment does vary slightly by manufacturer, what really matters is the body part being imaged. Different body tissues absorb radiation in different ways.
To provide consumers with a way of monitoring radiation exposure across multiple sources, the FDA uses an effective dosage scale. Each type of x-ray has an effective dosage associated with it measured in millisieverts (mSv). Since millisieverts isn't a unit of measure most people are familiar with (like a mile or a teaspoon), having a reference value helps put the numbers in context. The FDA estimates that the average person is exposed to 3.0 millisieverts of radiation per year from naturally occurring radioactive materials and cosmic rays. That's what allows them to state that a 0.1 millisievert dosage from a chest x-ray is equivalent to about 10 days of background radiation exposure.
Compared to a chest x-ray, x-rays of the extremities (arms and legs) have a much lower effective dosage and x-rays of the lower torso have a higher effective dosage. Recall that the effective dosage comes mainly from the body part being imaged not the intensity or duration of the x-ray machine pulse. Here's a summary of effective dosages and background radiation equivalents for the various types of x-rays a chiropractor is likely to recommend:
• Extremities - 0.001 mSv – similar to 3 hours background radiation
• Chest - 0.1 mSv - similar to 10 days background radiation
• Spine - 1.5 mSv - similar to 6 months background radiation
The FDA website and the excellent radiologyinfo.org website from the American College of Radiology and the Radiological Society of North America both point out that disease risks from radiation exposure are cumulative across time and that patients play a critical role in tracking their own exposure levels. Since you may be working with multiple health care providers in different specialty areas, you should keep a log of your exposures. Here is a link to a site where you can download a personal Patient Medical Imaging Record: imagewisely.org/Patients.aspx
Note that this article refers to effective exposures and recommendations for adults. If you are pregnant or looking for x-ray safety information for children, visit imagegently.org
Consumer Updates Reducing Radiation from Medical X rays. (n.d.). Retrieved 8 29, 2011, from FDA.gov: http://www.fda.gov/ForConsumers/ConsumerUpdates/ucm095505.htm
Patient Safety X ray and CT. (n.d.). Retrieved 8 29, 2011, from Radiologyinfo.org: http://www.radiologyinfo.org/en/safety/index.cfm?pg=sfty_xray
Radiology Risks Benefits for Patients Image Wisely Image Wisely. (n.d.). Retrieved 8 29, 2011, from ImageWisely.org: http://imagewisely.org/Patients.aspx